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Proposed photographic standards: Woody angiosperms

For background and rationale, see Baskauf, S.J. and B.K. Kirchoff (2008) Digital plant images as specimens: toward standards for photographing living plants.  Vulpina 7:16-30.

A. Whole tree (or vine)

1. entire tree - summer
The image of the whole tree should show the shape and growth form of the tree.  The idea is to give the viewer an idea of how the tree typically looks from a distance.


Quercus falcata

Rhus aromatica

Aralia spinosa

Aristolochia tomentosa

 

2. entire tree - winter
The purpose is the same as the summer image.  However, for deciduous trees, the branching pattern is more apparent when the leaves are not present.


Quercus falcata

Carya glabra

3. view up trunk, if tree is large
In forested environments, this may be the only possible image of the whole tree.  The view looking up the trunk presents another way for the viewer to become familiar with the overall form of the tree, combining factors such as the bark characteristics, straightness of trunk, and branching pattern. 


Carya ovata

Quercus shumardii

Quercus palustris

Quercus prinus

B. Bark (vertical orientation)

1. of a large tree
This view should show the bark morphology of a large, mature tree that has achieved its most developed state.


Carya ovata

Gymnocladus dioicus

Gleditsia triacanthos

Halesia tetraptera

2. of a medium tree or the bark of a large branch oriented vertically
This view should show the bark morphology of a tree or branch that is intermediate between the juvenile state and the fully-developed bark of a mature tree.  The characteristics of mature bark are often beginning to appear but are not fully developed.


Carya ovata

Gymnocladus dioicus

Gleditsia triacanthos
 

3. of a small tree or the bark of a small branch oriented vertically
This view should show the bark morphology of a sapling tree or an equivalently-sized branch larger than a twig.


Carya ovata

Gymnocladus dioicus

Gleditsia triacanthos

Halesia tetraptera

C. Twig

1. horizontal view showing the orientation of the petioles and axillary buds
Additional images may be included if necessary to show diagnostic features such as stipules, spines, thorns, or appearance of the twig surface. 


Acer saccharum

Carya cordiformis

Gleditsia triacanthos showing thorns

Quercus shumardii showing gray wax

2. horizontal view of a winter twig showing a terminal bud and several axillary buds


Acer saccharum

Ailanthus altissima
   

3. close-up of winter twig showing leaf scar and lateral bud (vertical orientation)
Microscopic or close macro image likely to be required.


Acer saccharum
 
   

4. close-up of winter twig showing terminal bud (vertical orientation)
Microscopic or close macro image likely to be required.


Acer saccharum

Ailanthus altissima
   

D. Leaf

1. upper (adaxial) surface of whole leaf oriented with apex downward; part of the lower (abaxial) surface of another leaf should be visible


Ostrya virginiana

Acer negundo

Nyssa biflora

Rhus glabra

2. margin of upper surface of leaf; part of the lower surface of another leaf with major veins visible should be shown behind the upper surface


Ostrya virginiana

Acer negundo

Nyssa biflora

Rhus glabra

3. several leaves showing their orientation on the twig


Ostrya virginiana

Acer pensylvanicum

Nyssa biflora

Ulmus rubra

E. Inflorescence and flower. If imperfect, photograph flowers of both sexes.

1. whole inflorescence


Magnolia ×soulangiana


Maclura pomifera (dioecious; upper: male, lower: female)

Prunus americana

Quercus palustris (monoecious; male and female)

2. lateral view of flower


Magnolia grandiflora


Maclura pomifera (upper: male, lower: female)

Prunus americana


Quercus palustris (upper: male, lower: female)

Campsis radicans

Rhododendron maximum

3. frontal view of flower


Magnolia macrophylla

Campsis radicans

Prunus americana

Rhododendron maximum

4. ventral view of flower showing perianth



Prunus americana

 
 
Ulmus rubra

5. if the flower is large, a close-up of its interior


Magnolia grandiflora

Rhododendron maximum
   

F. Fruit

1. as borne on the plant


Gymnocladus dioicus

Euonymus atropurpureus

Diospyros virginiana

Juglans nigra

2. lateral view


Gymnocladus dioicus

Aesculus glabra

Diospyros virginiana

Quercus alba

3. section of fruit, or open fruit if dehiscent


Gymnocladus dioicus

Aesculus flava

Diospyros virginiana

Euonymus atropurpureus

4. seeds


Gymnocladus dioicus

Aesculus flava
 
Juglans cinerea

5. young fruit


Gymnocladus dioicus

Aesculus flava

Quercus alba

Euonymus atropurpureus

Images (c) Steven J. Baskauf - click on link for info on individual images.