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Proposed photographic standards: Herbaceous angiosperms

For background and rationale, see Baskauf, S.J. and B.K. Kirchoff (2008) Digital plant images as specimens: toward standards for photographing living plants.  Vulpina 7:16-30.

A. Whole plant

1. juvenile
Images of seedlings or larger plants without flowers helps users to recognize the plant during parts of the year when the plants are not blooming.


Arabis perstellata

Arisaema dracontium

Xyris tennesseensis

Plantago rugelii

2. in flower
It is beneficial from the standpoint of rapid visual recognition to have images of both individual plants and the plants in their habitat or en masse. 



Arabis perstellata (top: individual, bottom: habitat)


Impatiens capensis (top: individual, bottom: mass)

Osmorhiza longistylis


Leavenworthia stylosa (top: individual, bottom: mass)

3. in fruit


Arabis perstellata

Taraxacum officinale

Osmorhiza longistylis

Arisaema dracontium

B. Stem

1. showing orientation of leaf bases or petioles (vertical orientation)


Arabis perstellata

Impatiens capensis

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

C. Leaf
Unlike woody plants where leaves are usually similar in all parts of the plant, herb leaves can frequently vary greatly depending on whether they are located near the base of the stem or higher up on the plant.  Photographing both types of leaves helps to capture the within-plant variation among leaves.  The orientation (apex up or down) is intended to reflect the way the leaf typically appears as it is seen by a viewer from above. 

1. basal leaves, or leaves on the lower stem, with apex down


Arabis perstellata

Impatiens capensis

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

2. on the upper stem, with the apex up


Arabis perstellata

Rudbeckia hirta

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

3. margin of upper surface of leaf; part of the lower surface of another leaf with major veins visible should be shown behind the upper surface


Arabis perstellata

Arisaema dracontium

Osmorhiza longistylis

Rudbeckia fulgida

D. Inflorescence and flower. If imperfect, flowers of both sexes.

1. whole inflorescence


Arabis perstellata

Taraxacum officinale
 

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

2. lateral view of flower


Arabis perstellata

Impatiens capensis

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

3. frontal view of flower


Arabis perstellata

Impatiens capensis

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

4. ventral view of flower showing perianth
In the case of composites, the ventral view will show bracts. 


Rudbeckia hirta

Erythronium americanum

Lysimachia quadrifolia

 

5. if the flower is large, a close-up of its interior
In the case of composites, the closeup view will show individual disk or ray flowers.


Rudbeckia hirta

Arisaema dracontium

Iris cristata

Oenothera macrocarp ssp. macrocarpa

E. Fruit

1. as borne on the plant


Arabis perstellata
 


Taraxacum officinale

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

2. lateral view



Arabis perstellata

Impatiens capensis

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

3. cross section of fruit, or open fruit if dehiscent



Arabis perstellata

Impatiens capensis

Osmorhiza longistylis

Geranium dissectum

4. seeds



Salvia lyrata

Impatiens capensis

Arabis perstellata

Geranium dissectum

5. young fruit
These images can show developing fruit or fruit that is not ripe.


Arabis perstellata

Hypericum frondosum

Thalictrum revolutum

Thaspium trifoliatum

Images (c) Steven J. Baskauf - click on link for info on individual images.