Bioimages home
Back to general photography standards

Proposed photographic standards: Gymnosperms

For background and rationale, see Baskauf, S.J. and B.K. Kirchoff (2008) Digital plant images as specimens: toward standards for photographing living plants.  Vulpina 7:16-30.

A. Whole tree

1. entire tree
The image of the whole tree should show the shape and growth form of the tree.  The idea is to give the viewer an idea of how the tree typically looks from a distance.


Pinus albicaulis
(c) 2004 Maurice J. Kaufmann

Abies fraseri

Juniperus virginiana

Tsuga canadensis

2. looking up trunk, if tree is large
In forested environments, this may be the only possible image of the whole tree.  The view looking up the trunk presents another way for the viewer to become familiar with the overall form of the tree, combining factors such as the bark characteristics, straightness of trunk, and branching pattern. 


Pinus echinata

Sequoiadendron giganteum
(c) 2004 Maurice J. Kaufmann

Pinus ponderosa

Pseudotsuga menziesii

B. Bark

1. of a large tree
This view should show the bark morphology of a large, mature tree that has achieved its most developed state.


Pinus albicaulis

Abies lasiocarpa

Picea engelmannii

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis

2. of a medium tree, or the bark of a large branch
This view should show the bark morphology of a tree or branch that is intermediate between the juvenile state and the fully-developed bark of a mature tree.  The characteristics of mature bark are often beginning to appear but are not fully developed.


Pinus albicaulis

Abies lasiocarpa

Picea engelmannii
 

3. of a small tree, or the bark of a small branch
This view should show the bark morphology of a sapling tree or an equivalently-sized branch larger than a twig.


Pinus albicaulis

Abies lasiocarpa

Juniperus virginiana

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis

C. Twig

1. horizontal view after needles/scales have fallen
This will generally be a larger twig and shows the appearance of the needle scar and the degree to which it is raised.


Abies grandis

Picea sitchensis

Thuja plicata

Pinus flexilis

2. horizontal view showing attachment of needles or scales
This will generally be a smaller twig and shows whether the needles are ranked or project radially.


Abies grandis

Picea sitchensis

Thuja plicata

Pinus flexilis

D. Leaf

1. entire needle (or scales), apex down
If the needles have distinct lower and upper surfaces, both should be shown for contrast.


Abies grandis

Pinus albicaulis

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis

Larix occidentalis

2. fascicle base showing number of needles per fascicle, and scales if present


Abies grandis

Pinus albicaulis

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis

Larix occidentalis

3. many needles (or scales) showing orientation on twig


Abies grandis

Pinus albicaulis

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis

Larix occidentalis

E. Cone

1. male cones


Pinus virginiana

Pinus strobus

Tsuga canadensis

Taxus sp.

2. female cone, mature, open


Pinus virginiana

Pinus strobus

Tsuga canadensis

Taxus sp.

3. female cone, closed


Pinus virginiana

Pinus strobus

Tsuga canadensis

 

4. female cone, receptive


Pinus virginiana

Pinus strobus

 

Taxus sp. (?)

5. one year-old female cone (in species requiring two years of cone development)


Pinus virginiana

 
 
 

6. seeds


 

 

 

 

Except as noted, images (c) Steven J. Baskauf - click on link for info on individual images.