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Proposed photographic standards: Ferns and fern allies

For background and rationale, see Baskauf, S.J. and B.K. Kirchoff (2008) Digital plant images as specimens: toward standards for photographing living plants.  Vulpina 7:16-30.

A. Whole plant

1. entire plant, vegetative
In cases where the spore-bearing structures are on the lower surface of the leaf, it may be unnecessary to differentiate between this category and the next.


Lycopodium digitatum

Equisetum arvense
   

2. entire plant showing reproductive structures
It may be beneficial to take a more distant image showing the plant in its habitat in order to provide a sense of scale and to facilitate rapid visual recognition.


Ophioglossum engelmannii (left: closeup, right: plant in habitat)

Cheilanthes lanosa

Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine (left: closeup, right: plant in habitat)

Lycopodium digitatum
 

B. Leaf (frond)

1. upper surface of entire frond
The apex should be up (not followed for Lycopodium digitatum).


Ophioglossum engelmannii

Cheilanthes lanosa

Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine

Lycopodium digitatum

Adiantum pedatum

Botrychium virginianum

2. lower surface of entire frond
These images do not follow this standard as they do not show the entire lower surface.


Cheilanthes lanosa

Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. michauxian

Phegopteris hexagonoptera
 

3. margin of upper surface of frond (if entire), or pinna (if compound) with lower surface of another frond/pinna visible behind upper surface Note: most of these images do not follow this standard in that they do not have the lower surface of another frond/pinna visible behind.


Cheilanthes lanosa

Lycopodium digitatum

Adiantum pedatum

Cystopteris protrusa

4. stem/base of frond
Include an image of the supporting structures of the fronds or sporangia.


Ophioglossum engelmannii

Cheilanthes lanosa

Adiantum pedatum

Lycopodium digitatum

D. Sporangia

1. spore-bearing structure
If the sporangia are located on a specialized structure, include a close-up image of that structure.   If the sporangia are located on the frond, include a close-up image of the lower frond surface showing their arrangement.


Ophioglossum engelmannii

Polystichum acrostichoides

Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine

Lycopodium digitatum

Woodsia obtusa

Adiantum pedatum

E. Gametophyte

1. microscopic view of gametophyte


Ophioglossum engelmannii

Botrychium dissectum

Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine (c) 2004 Dean P. Whitter

Lycopodium digitatum

 

Except as noted, images (c) Steven J. Baskauf - click on link for info on individual images.