Bioimages home
Back to general photography standards

Proposed photographic standards: Cacti

For background and rationale, see Baskauf, S.J. and B.K. Kirchoff (2008) Digital plant images as specimens: toward standards for photographing living plants.  Vulpina 7:16-30.

A. Whole plant

1. entire plant
In addition to an image focused solely on the individual, it is beneficial to show the whole plant in its habitat.



Carnegia gigantea


Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia fulgida

Ferocactus wislizeni

B. "Bark"

1. lower part of stem, if different from photosynthesizing stem


Opuntia fulgida

Opuntia humifusa
   

C. Stem

1. entire column, stem, or pad
This view should show detail that may not seen in the whole plant image.


Carnegia gigantea

Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia fulgida

Ferocactus wislizeni

D. Areole

1. areole, showing orientation of spines


Carnegia gigantea

Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia fulgida

Ferocactus wislizeni

E. Leaf (if present)
Appropriate for species having leaves, e.g. Pereskia

F. Apex

1. apical region


Carnegia gigantea

Opuntia humifusa

Echinocereus nicholii

Ferocactus wislizeni

G. Flower; same as woody angiosperms

1. whole inflorescence


Carnegia gigantea

Opuntia humifusa
   

2. lateral view of flower


Opuntia acanthocarpa

Ferocactus wislizeni
   

3. frontal view of flower


Carnegia gigantea (c) 2004 Maurice J. Kaufmann

Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia acanthocarpa
 

Ferocactus wislizeni

4. ventral view of flower showing perianth

5. if the flower is large, a close-up of its interior

H. Fruit

1. on plant


Carnegia gigantea

Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia fulgida

Ferocactus wislizeni

2. lateral view


Carnegia gigantea

Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia engelmannii

Ferocactus wislizeni

3. cross section of fruit, or open fruit if dehiscent


Carnegia gigantea

 
   

4. seeds

5. young fruit


Opuntia fulgida

Opuntia arbuscula
   

Except as noted, images (c) Steven J. Baskauf - click on link for info on individual images.